[ID:4-6290246] 中考英语语法专题讲解——形容词和副词课件(22张PPT)
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(共22张PPT) 中考英语语法专题讲解 形容词和副词 说明人或物的特征、性质和状态,常用来修饰名词或不定代词的词叫作形容词。 作定语 及物动词本身意义不完整,需要接宾语意义才能够完整。 形容词作定语时,放在名词之前,复合不定代词之后。 He lives in a beautiful house. There is nothing important in today’s newspaper. 作表语 及物动词本身意义不完整,需要接宾语意义才能够完整。 放在系动词(be, feel, look, smell, taste, sound, get, become, keep, turn, seem等)之后。 His idea sounds great. 作宾语补足语 及物动词本身意义不完整,需要接宾语意义才能够完整。 放在宾语后面,常与make, keep, find, leave等动词连用。 They keep the classroom clean every day. We find it important to learn English well. 用来修饰动词、形容词、副词的词叫作副词。 作状语 及物动词本身意义不完整,需要接宾语意义才能够完整。 副词作状语修饰动词、形容词和副词,还可以修饰整个句子。 He works hard.(修饰动词) He worked out the problem very easily.(修饰副词) Unfortunately, he was away when I arrived.(修饰整个句子) 作表语 及物动词本身意义不完整,需要接宾语意义才能够完整。 作表语的副词,大多数表示位置或者状态,如:out, in, on, back, down, up, off, away, upstairs, downstairs等。 He is in. What’s on this evening? I must be off now. 形容词和副词级的用法 表示A与B在某方面程度相同或者不同时,用形容词和副词原级。 肯定的结构:A...+as+形容词/副词原级+as+B“A和B一样……” English is as interesting as Chinese. I can run as quickly as you. 否定的结构:A...not+as/so+形容词/副词原级+as+B“A不如B……” This book isn’t as new as that one. English is not so interesting as Chinese. =English is less interesting than Chinese. He doesn’t write as carefully as his sister. =He writes less carefully than his sister. 构成 【规则变化】 构成法 原级 比较级 最高级 单音节词+er/est short shorter shortest cold colder coldest 以不发音e结尾的词+r/st wide wider widest large larger largest 单个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节词,双写末尾辅音字母+er/est big bigger biggest hot hotter hottest 以辅音字母+y结尾的词,变y为i+er/est heavy heavier heaviest busy busier busiest 多音节词在前面+more/most important more important most important beautiful more beautiful most beautiful 【不规则变化】 原级 比较级 最高级 good/well better best bad/ill/badly worse worst many/much more most little less least old older(年纪较大的)elder(较年长的) oldest(年级最大的)eldest(最年长的) far farther(较远)further(进一步) farthest(最远)furthest(最大限度) 具体用法 表示两者间进行比较时,用形容词和副词比较级,结构为“A+比较级+than+B”。 Lily’s room is bigger than mine. Tom is hard-working. I work harder than him. 表示两者进行比较时,用比较级,表示“哪一个更……”。 Who is taller, Li Ming or Wang Tao? Which runs more quickly, tigers or lions? 表示“越来越……”用比较级的重叠结构,即“比较级+and+比较级”,当形容词和副词为多音节词时,用“more and more+多音节词”。 It’s getting warmer and warmer in spring. The girl becomes more and more beautiful. 表示“越……, 就越……”时,用“the+比较级,the+比较级”。 The more careful you are, the more points you will get. The more we know each other, the better we understand each other. 表示“两者之间比较……的一个(of the two)”时,常用“the+比较级”结构。 Mary is the taller of the twins. 比较级可以被一些程度副词修饰,如:a little, a bit, a lot, much, even, still, far, any等。 It is much colder today than yesterday. 表示三者或者以上的人和物进行比较时,用最高级形式,形容词最高级前常加上定冠词the,句末常跟一个in/of短语表示范围;副词最高级前the可以省略。 Shanghai is the biggest city in China. Which city is the most beautiful, Beijing, Shanghai or Fuzhou? Ben talks (the) least and does (the) most in his class. 表示“最……的之一”时,用“one of the+形容词最高级”结构,该形容词后面的名词要用复数形式。 Jay Chou is one of the most popular singers. 形容词最高级前面可以加上序数词,表示“第几最……”。 The Yellow River is the second longest river in China. 特别提示 1、形容词最高级前可以用物主代词、指示代词、名词所有格等修饰,此时不能再用定冠词。 This is our best lesson today. 2、形容词比较级结构可以表示最高级含义。 He is taller than any other boy in our class. =He is the tallest boy in our class. =He is taller than the other boys in our class. =He is taller than any of the other boys in our class. Beijing is bigger than any other city in China.(北京属于中国) Beijing is bigger than any city in Japan.(北京不属于中国) 难点突破 1、多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 限定词+描绘词(大小、长短、形状、新旧、长幼、颜色)+出处+材料+类别+名词 an red cotton skirt an expensive Chinese sports car 2、定语形容词和表语形容词 有少数形容词只能作定语,不能作表语,如:little, live(活着的),elder, eldest。 有少数形容词只能作表语,不能作前置定语,如:alone, alive, asleep, afraid, ill, well(身体好的), sure, unable。 a live fish a man alive fall asleep
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